Digital Communication through Online Learning in Indonesia: Challenges and Opportunities

Ayu Rahmawati, Firman Kurniawan Sujono


The technological revolution that has changed from analog to digital creates new challenges and opportunities, particularly when referring to the communication perspective. This study discusses communication through digital media and its dynamics in Indonesia. It comprehensively examined Ruangguru, the biggest online learning platform in Indonesia. This paper uses a qualitative descriptive approach with a case-study method. It is aimed to analyze Ruangguru’s online learning communication patterns using the social presence theory in the dimensions of social context, online communication, and interactivity. The result of this study reveals many advantages offered by online learning. Nevertheless, online learning can not fully replace conventional learning, especially when viewed from the low dimensions of social context. In the online communication dimension, Indonesia is still hampered by technical problems, both from technology infrastructure and the readiness of teachers and students.


Conventional learning; Online learning; Social interaction; Social presence theory

Full Text:



Alfarizi, M. K. 2020. “Kelas Online Gratis Dibuka, Pengguna Ruangguru Kalahkan TikTok.” Https://Tekno.Tempo.Co/Read/1321028/Kelas-Online-Gratis-Dibuka-Pengguna-Ruangguru-Kalahkan-Tiktok.

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2019. “Potret Pendidikan Indonesia 2019.”

Berge, Zane, and Mauri Collins. 1995. “Computer-Mediated Communication and the Online Classroom in Distance Learning.” Computer-Mediated Communication Magazine 2(4):6.

Brown, J. S. and Duguid Paul. 2002. “Local Knowledge, Inovation into Networked Age.” Sage Publication Vol. 33(4)(Management Learning).

Burrowes. 2003. “Pendekatan Pendidikan.” Http.Edukasi.Kompasiana.Com. /2009/12/20 Pendekatan/Pembelajaran/ Konvensional.Html.

Crowther, Mark, Wendy Lim, and Mark A. Crowther. 2010. “Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Methodology.” Blood 116(17):3140–46. n.d. “Miliki 15 Juta Pengguna, Ruangguru Siapkan Debut Ekspansi Ke Luar Negeri.” Dailysocial.Id.

Fitzgibbons, Shirley. 2009. “Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE).” Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences, Third Edition 27(4):328–40.

Gunawardena, C. 1995. “Social Presence Theory and Implications of Interaction and Collaborative Learning in Computer Conferencing.” International Journal of Educational Telecommunications 1(2–3):147–66.

Gunawardena, Charlotte N., and Frank J. Zittle. 1997. “Social Presence as a Predictor of Satisfaction within a Computer–Mediated Conferencing Environment.” International Journal of Phytoremediation 21(1):8–26.

Hackman, Michael Zane, and Kim B. Walker. 1990. “Instructional Communication in the Televised Classroom: The Effects of System Design and Teacher Immediacy on Student Learning and Satisfaction.” Communication Education 39(3):196–206.

Harasim, Linda. 2000. “Harasim2000.” 3:41–61.

Jonassen, DH. 2000. “Revisiting Activity Theory as a Framework for Designing Student-Centered Learning Environments.” in Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments.

Kamsin, Amirrudin. 2005. “Is E-Learning the Solution and Substitute for Conventional Learning ?” International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management 13(3):79–89.

Lowenthal, P. R. 2010. The Evolution and Influence of Social Presence Theory on Online Learning. In Social Computing: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. IGI Global.

Luthfia, Amia, Pinckey Triputra, and . Hendriyani. 2019. “Indonesian Adolescents’ Online Opportunities and Risks.” Jurnal ASPIKOM 4(1):1.

Maloney-Krichmar, D., & Abras, C. 2003. History of Emergence of Online Communities. In K. Christen- Sen & D. Levinson. Encyclopedia of community: From village to virtual world. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication,.

McCreary, Faith Anne. 2001. “Empirical Evaluation of a Technology -Rich Learning Environment.” ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (January):327.

Mcmahon, Mark, and Romana Pospisil. 2005. “Laptops for a Digital Lifestyle: Millennial Students and Wireless Mobile Technologies.” ASCILITE 2005 - The Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (2001):421–31. n.d. “Begini Tantangan Online Learning Di Indonesia.” Https://Www.Merdeka.Com/Teknologi/Begini-Tantangan-Online- Learning-Di-Indonesia.Html.

Miller, G., Benke, M., Chaloux, B., Ragan, L. C., Schroeder, R., Smutz, W., & Swan, K. 2013. Leading the E-Learning Transformation of Higher Education: Meeting the Challenges of Technology and Distance Education. Stylus Publishing, LLC..

Moleong, L. J. 2016. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: Rosda.

Moore, M., & Kearsley, G. 2012. Distance Education: A Systems View of Online Learning (3rd Ed.). Bel- mont, CA: Wadsworth.

Perse, Elizabeth M., Pamela I. Burton, Margaret E. Lears, Elizabeth S. Kovner, and Ruma J. Sen. 1992. “Predicting Computer-Mediated Communication in a College Class.” Communication Research Reports 9(2):161–70.

Pramisti, N., Wibisono, N., & Hanifan, A. n.d. “Revolusi Guru Muda Indonesia.” Https://Tirto.Id/Revolusi-Guru-Muda-Indonesia-NQK.

Prensky, M. 2001. Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon.

Read, S. J., & Miller, L. C. 1995. Stories Are Fundamental to Meaning and Memory: For Social Creatures, Could It Be Otherwise? In R. S. Wyer (Ed.), Knowledge and Memory: The Real Story. Hillsday, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Setyaningsih, Rila, Abdullah Abdullah, Edy Prihantoro, and Hustinawaty Hustinawaty. 2019. “Model Penguatan Literasi Digital Melalui Pemanfaatan E-Learning.” Jurnal ASPIKOM 3(6):1200.

Short, J., E. Williams, and B. Christie. 1976. “The Social Psychology of Telecommunications.” London: John Wiley & Sons.

Stern, Joshua. 2018. “Introduction to Online Teaching and Learning.” International Journal of Science Education (3):1–10.

Syafril, Elsa Putri Ermisah. 2019. “‘Ruangguru’, Digitalisasi Pendidikan Antara Capaian Nilai Dan Pengembangan Karakter Melalui Interaksi Sosial.” Icadecs.Um.Ac.Id 2019:94–99. 2020. “Mendikbud: Sekolah Bebas Pilih Kurikulum Yang Sesuai.”

Thomas, Lickona. 2012. Character Matters. Jakarta : PT. Bumi Aksara. 2019. “Pola Pendidikan Yang Tepat Bagi Generasi Z Dan Generasi Alfa.”

Tu, Chih-hsiung, and Marina Mcisaac. 2010. “The Relationship of Social Presence and Interaction in Online Classes The Relationship of Social Presence and Interaction In.” Communication 16(3):131–50.

Walther, Joseph B., and Judee K. Burgoon. 1992. “Relational Communication in Computer-Mediated Communication.” Human Communication Research 19(1):50–88.

Wang, Yi Shun, Ming Cheng Wu, and Hsiu Yuan Wang. 2009. “Investigating the Determinants and Age and Gender Differences in the Acceptance of Mobile Learning.” British Journal of Educational Technology 40(1):92–118.

Wilson, Michael, and Leslie E. Gerber. 2008. “How Generational Theory Can Improve Teaching : Strategies for Working with the ‘ Millennials .’” Currents in Teaching and Learning 1(1):29–44.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal ASPIKOM indexed by:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License