Indonesian Adolescents' Online Opportunities and Risks

Amia Luthfia, Pinckey Triputra, Hendriyani .


This research aims to 1) explore the benefits of online (benefits obtained when on the internet) and online risks (risks experienced when on the internet) in adolescents in Jakarta; 2) Test differences in online benefits and online risk based on differences in gender, education level, and school affiliation. This study used a survey method with a multilevel random sampling technique performed on adolescents living in Jakarta aged 12-18 (N = 756). The data analysis technique for this study is descriptive analysis and T-test analysis. The results of the research show that teenagers in Jakarta regularly use the internet every day with relatively high duration. More than 60% of teens benefit online in the medium to the high category, with six types of benefits online: learning, creative participation, social participation, social relations, entertainment, commercial benefits, and personal benefits. Most teens experience online risk in the low category, with three types of risks: content risk, contact risk, and behavioral risk. Other findings, namely: (1) there are significant differences in online risk-based on sex and adolescent education level; (2) significant differences in online benefits are based solely on adolescent education levels. There are no significant differences in online and online risk benefits based on school affiliation (non-religious schools and religion-based schools). This research contributes to the importance of distinguishing online benefits and online risks from adolescent education levels.


Adolescents; Internet Use; Online Benefits; Online Risk

Full Text:



Asosiasi Penyelenggara Jasa Internet Indonesia - APJII. (2017). Penetrasi & Perilaku Pengguna Internet Indonesia - Survey 2017.

Baek, Y. M., Cho, Y., & Kim, H. (2014). Attachment Style and its Influence on the Activities , Motives , and Consequences of SNS Use. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 58(4), 37–41.

Borah, P. (2017). Emerging communication technology research: Theoretical and methodological variables in the last 16 years and future directions. New Media & Society, 19(4), 616–636.

Chin Hooi, P. S. (2011). Influence of parents and peers on Internet usage and addiction amongst school-going youths in Malaysia. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, (January), 238-n/a.

Cho, J., de Zúñiga, H. G., Rojas, H., & Shah, D. V. (2003). Beyond access: The digital divide and Internet uses and gratifications. IT & Society, 1(4), 46–72.

Green, L., Brady, D., Olafsson, K., Hartley, J., & Lumby, C. (2011). Risks and safety for Australian children on the internet. Cultural Science, 4(1), 75.

Hargittai, E., & Walejko, G. (2008). THE PARTICIPATION DIVIDE : Content creation and sharing in the digital age. Information, Communication & Society, 11(2), 239–256.

Hasebrink, U., Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., & Olafsson, K. (2009). Comparing children’s online opportunities and risks across Europe: Cross-national comparisons for EU Kids Online.

Hendriyani, Hollander, E., d’Haenens, L., & Beentjes, J. (2011). Children’s Television in Indonesia. Journal of Children and Media, 5(1), 86–101.

Hendriyani, Hollander, E., Haenens, L., & Beentjes, J. W. J. (2012). Children ’ s media use in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Communication, 22(3), 304–319.

Ito, M. (2007). Technologies of the Childhood Imagination: Media Mixes, Hypersociality and Recombinant Cultural Form. Structures of Participation in Digital Culture, 4, 31–34.

Ito, M., Baumer, S., Bittanti, M., Cody, R., Stephenson, B., Horst, H., … Perkel, D. (2009). Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out. Kids Living and Learning with New Media. MIT Press.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Confronting the Challenges of Participatoty Culture: Media Education for 21st Century.

Kompas, H. (2018a, July). “Candu Gawai” nan Membius. Harian Kompas, 23 Juli 2018, p. 2.

Kompas, H. (2018b, July). Kecanduan Gawai Ancam Anak-anak. Harian Kompas, 23 Juli 2018, p. 2.

Lee, J. H., & Kim, J. (2014). Socio-demographic gaps in mobile use, causes, and consequences: a multi-group analysis of the mobile divide model. Information, Communication & Society, 17(8), 917–936.

Leung, L. (2008). Linking Psychological Attributes To Addiction and Improper Use of the Mobile Phone Among Adolescents in Hong Kong. Journal of Children and Media, 2(2), 93–113.

Leung, L. (2014). Predicting Internet risks : a longitudinal panel study of gratifications-sought , Internet addiction symptoms , and social media use among children and adolescents. Health Psychology & Behavioural Medicine, 2(1), 424–439.

Livingstone, S., Kirwil, L., Ponte, C., & Staksrud, E. (2014). In their own words: What bothers children online? European Journal of Communication, 29(3), 271–288.

Livingstone, Sonia. (2008). Taking risky opportunities in youthful content creation: teenagers’ use of social networking sites for intimacy, privacy and self-expression.

Livingstone, Sonia. (2011). Internet, Children, and Youth. In The Handbook of Internet Studies (pp. 348–368).

Livingstone, Sonia. (2013). Online risk , harm and vulnerability : Reflections on the evidence base for child Internet safety policy. ZER: Journal of Communication Studies, 18(35), 13–28.

Livingstone, Sonia, Bober, M., & Helsper, E. J. (2005). Active participation or just more information? Young people’s take-up of opportunities to act and interact on the Internet. Information, Communication & Society, 8(3), 287–314.

Livingstone, Sonia, & Haddon, L. (2014). Theoretical framework for children ’ s internet use. In Sonia Livingstone, H. Leslie, & A. Gorzig (Eds.), Children, Risk and Safety on the Internet: Research and Policy Challenges in Comparative Perspective (pp. 1–14). Bristol: The Policy Press.

Livingstone, Sonia, & Helsper, E. (2010). Balancing opportunities and risks in teenagers’ use of the internet: the role of online skills and internet self-efficacy.

Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, G., & Staksrud, E. (2015). Developing a framework for researching children ’ s online risks and opportunities in Europe.

Luthfia, A. (2018). Online Opportunity dan Reduksi Online Risk Melalui Lingkungan Sosial Remaja (Survei pada Siswa SMP dan SMA di DKI Jakarta). University of Indonesia.

Michelle, M., & Ramadan, R. (2018). Fakta Foto Bugil Remaja: Dianggap Tanda Sayang, jadi Mantan Foto Disebar. Retrieved March 7, 2018, from website:

Notten, N., & Nikken, P. (2014). Boys and girls taking risks online: A gendered perspective on social context and adolescents’ risky online behavior. New Media & Society, 1–24.

Quan-Hasse, A., & Young, A. L. (2014). The Uses and Gratifications (U&G) Approach as a Lens for Studying Social Media Practice. In R. S. Fortner & P. M. Fackler (Eds.), The Handbook of Media and Mass Communication Theory Volume 1 (pp. 269–286). West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Rice, R. E. (2017). Intermediality and the Diffusion of Innovations. Human Communication Research, 43(4), 531–544.

Ruggiero, T. E. (2016). Uses and Gratifications Theory in the 21st Century. In R. Wei (Ed.), Refining Milestone Mass Communications Theories for the 21st Century (pp. 36–70). Oxon, UK: Routledge.

Staksrud, E., & Livingstone, S. (2009). Children and online risk: powerless victims or resourceful participants? Information, Communication & Society, 12(3), 364–387.

Steiner-Adair, C., & Barker, T. H. (2013). The Big Disconnect. Protecting Childhood and Family Relationship in the Digital Age. New York: Harper Collins.

Sundar, S. S., & Limperos, A. M. (2013). Uses and Grats 2 . 0 : New Gratifications for New Media. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 57(4), 504–525.

Vandoninck, S., d’Haenens, L., De Cock, R., & Donoso, V. (2012). Social networking sites and contact risks among Flemish youth. Childhood, 19(1), 69–85.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal ASPIKOM indexed by:
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License