Female Representation on Banknotes: A Semiotic Analysis of 2022 Indonesia Banknotes

Michael Herdi Hadylaya


Besides their economic value, banknotes have a symbolic value through an expression of cultural identity that forms a nation. Generally, the customary design of banknotes in most countries issued by financial authorities is the portrait of notable male leaders. This research examined the banknotes for the 2022 emission yearissued by Bank Indonesia to emphasize the frequent representation of male and female images used in the issued currency. Using the interpretivism paradigm with semiotic methods, this research found that on the surface, Indonesian banknotes in the 2022 emission year seem to show a sense of appreciation for women and femininity in Indonesia but in essence still lack a sense of justice towards women.


Gender, Banknotes, Semiotic, Leader, Rupiah

Full Text:



Allen, M. (Ed.). (2017). The SAGE encyclopedia of communication research methods. SAGE.

ANTARA News Agency. (2022, August 22). Uang rupiah baru tahun emisi 2022. Antara News Sumsel. https://sumsel.antaranews.com/infografik-daerah/668729/uang-rupiah-baru-tahun-emisi-2022

Bankov, K. (2016). The Treasures of World Semiotics. Chinese Semiotic Studies, 12(2), 125–126.

Bingham, C. M. (2014). Money Talks: A Semiotic Exploration of Money as Communication. New Semiotics Between Tradition and Innovation.

Brandt, P. A. (2017). The meaning and madness of money: A Semio-ecological analysis. Cognitive Semiotics, 10(2), 141–168.

Cirlot, J. C. (1971). A Dictionary of Symbols. Routledge.

CNBC Indonesia. (2022, August 26). Uang Rupiah Baru 2022, Sudah Tersedia di ATM Belum Ya? CNBC Indonesia. https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/news/20220826073811-4-366765/uang-rupiah-baru-2022-sudah-tersedia-di-atm-belum-ya

Cobley, P., & Jansz, L. (2012). Introducing Semiotics. Icon Books Ltd.

Croucher, S. M., & Cronn-Mills, D. (2019). Understanding communication research methods: A theoretical and practical approach (Second edition). Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

CRRC. (2006, November 28). The Orchid in the Human Imagination. https://depts.washington.edu/popctr/orchids.htm

Davies, G. (2002). A History of Money. University of Wales Press.

Debora. (2022, January 29). 10 Mitos dan Fakta Bunga Sedap Malam, Yuk Disimak! | Orami. https://www.orami.co.id/magazine/bunga-sedap-malam

Eco, U. (1976). A theory of semiotics. Indiana University Press.

Gambar Uang. (n.d.). Retrieved December 16, 2022, from https://www.bi.go.id/id/rupiah/gambar-uang/Default.aspx

Gelgel, N. M. R. A. (2022). Communication Research: Then, Now, and Future. Jurnal Aspikom, 7(2, July 2022), 15–28.

Gleicher, D. (2013). Rethinking money and the state: A semiotic turn. Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment, 3(4), 344–359.

Gray, R. T. (2000). Hypersign, Hypermoney, Hypermarket: Adam Müller’s Theory of Money and Romantic Semiotics. New Literary History, 31(2), 295–314.

Habullah. (2018). Kontribusi Perempuan Pengrajin Tenun Terhadap. KAFA’AH Journal, 8(2), 213–225.

Hardwick, C. S. (1977). Semiotics and Significs. Indiana University Press.

Hukumonline.com. (2004, June 4). Soal Fatwa Haram Presiden Perempuan, PB HMI ‘Membela’ Megawati. https://www.hukumonline.com/berita/a/soal-fatwa-haram-presiden-perempuan-pb-hmi-membela-megawati-hol10441?page=1

Ismail, S. (2018). Menyusuri Tempat Tinggal Srikandi Aceh Cut Nyak Meutia. Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa.

Kadir, H. A. (2014). History of the Moluccan’s Cloves as a Global Commodity. Kawalu: Journal of Local Culture, 1(2 (July-December)), 179–188.

Kusuma, H. B. (2018, March 1). Apa makna bunga Kamboja bagi orang Bali? - Ilmu Budaya / Antropologi. Dictio Community. https://www.dictio.id/t/apa-makna-bunga-kamboja-bagi-orang-bali/21564

Llewellyn, N. (2015). ‘Money Talks’: Communicative and Symbolic Functions of Cash Money. Sociology, 50(4), 796–812.

Lu, C. (2022, June 17). Fatherland vs. Motherland ­– What Is the Gender of Your Country? Certified Translator Toronto, Translation Agency Toronto - MCIS Languages. https://www.mcislanguages.com/fatherland-vs-motherland-what-is-the-gender-of-your-country/

Macdonell, A. A. (1897). Vedic Mythology. Strassburg K.J. Trübner.

Nickerson, C. (2022, April 5). Interpretivism Paradigm & Research Philosophy. https://simplysociology.com/interpretivism-paradigm.html

O’Leary, Z. (2017). The essential guide to doing your research project (3rd edition). SAGE Publications.

Poesponegoro, M. D. (2008). Sejarah Nasional Indonesia III. Balai Pustaka.

Ramadhani, W. (2022, October 11). Warna Kembang Telon dan Makna Sakral dalam Hidup – Jurnaba. https://jurnaba.co/warna-kembang-telon-dan-makna-sakral-dalam-hidup/

Razak, M. R. bin A., Harun, A. bin, & Zain, D. H. bin Md. (2015). Vision 2020 Banknotes Revisited: A Semiotic Analysis of the Third Series Malaysian Banknotes. International Colloquium of Art and Design Education Research (i-CADER 2014), 595–602.

Short, T. L. (2007). Peirce’s Theory of Signs. Cambridge University Press.

Sokowati, M. E. (2022). Feminist Activism in Digital Culture: Problems of Class and Ethics. Jurnal Aspikom, 7(2, July 2022), 60–79.

Suradisastra, K. (1998). Perspektif Keterlibatan Wanita di Sektor Pertanian. FAE, 16(2), 1–9.

Taheri, S., & Nafiseh, Y. (2021). Social Semiotics Analysis of the Dollar’s Visual Structure. Occidental Studies, 11(2), 95–117.

Weatherford, J. (1996). The History of Money. Crown Publisher, Inc.

Wennerlind, C. (2001). Money Talks, but What Is It Saying? Semiotics of Money and Social Control. Journal of Economic Issues, 35(3), 557–574.

Wulandari, P. (2015). Kedudukan dan Peran Perempuan Pada Komunitas Suku Dayak Hindu Budha Bumi Segandhu Indramayu dalam Sistem Sosial [Other, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia]. https://doi.org/10/S_SOS_1102804_Appendix1.pdf

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24329/aspikom.v8i1.1253


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Web Analytics